Turkish Public Law Refik Korkusuz

Turkish Public Law


Basım Tarihi
2018-06
Sayfa Sayısı
368
Kapak Türü
Karton
Kağıt Türü
1.Hamur
Basım Yeri
Ankara
Stok Kodu
9789750248832
Boyut
16x24
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1



34,90 TL
(Bu ürünü aldığınızda 34 puan kazanacaksınız)
   34

Prof. Dr. M. Refik KORKUSUZ

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ferna İPEKEL KAYALI

 

Konu Başlıkları
- Constitutional Law
- Administrative Law
- Criminal Law
- Tax Law
- Public International Law
- Legal History
Philosophy and Sociology of Law

 

İÇİNDEKİLER
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
PUBLIC LAW
CHAPTER 1
FUNDAMENTAL ELEMENTS OF TURKISH CONSTITUTIONAL LAW
Asst. Prof. Dr. Murat TUMAY, Res. Asst. Feyzan ÖZBAY,
Res. Asst. Sezen KAMA IŞIK, Res. Asst. Mustafa Gökhan ERTİN 25
CHAPTER 2
HUMAN RIGHTS PROTECTION FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE 1982
CONSTITUTION
Asst. Prof. Dr. Murat TUMAY, Res. Asst. Feyzan ÖZBAY,
Res. Asst. Sezen KAMA IŞIK, Res. Asst. Mustafa Gökhan ERTİN 53
CHAPTER 3
TURKISH ADMINISTRATIVE LAW
Dr. Halil ALTINDAĞ, Asst. Prof. Dr. Ömer Faruk EROL, Res. Asst. Emre KILIÇ 67
CHAPTER 4
TURKISH ADMINISTRATIVE JURISDICTION
Dr. Halil ALTINDAĞ, Res. Asst. İ. Esra Dülger SUCU, Res. Asst. Kasım OCAK 91
CHAPTER 5
TURKISH CRIMINAL AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE LAW
Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Hakan HAKERİ, Res. Asst. Dr. Derya TEKİN,
Res. Asst. Melik KARTAL, Res. Asst. Kübra TUNÇ 109
CHAPTER 6
TURKISH GENERAL TAX LAW
Res. Asst. Emine Sevcan ARTUN, Res. Asst. Ahmet Emrah GEÇER,
Res. Asst. Arzu KALYON 203
CHAPTER 7
TURKISH TAXATION SYSTEM
Res. Asst. Arzu KALYON, Res. Asst. Ahmet Emrah GEÇER,
Res. Asst. Emine Sevcan ARTUN 235
CHAPTER 8
PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW
Asst. Prof. Dr. Tülay YILDIRIM MAT, Res. Asst. Miray AZAKLI KÖSE 247
CHAPTER 9
PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW–OTHER ISSUES OF INTERNATIONAL LAW
AND TURKEY’S LEGAL POSITION IN RELATED MATTERS
Asst. Prof. Dr. Tülay YILDIRIM MAT, Res. Asst. Miray AZAKLI KÖSE,
Res. Asst. Merve İSPİRLİ ARMAĞAN 275
CHAPTER 10
TURKISH LEGAL HISTORY (PRE–ISLAMIC PERIOD)
Asst. Prof. Dr. Saliha OKUR GÜMRÜKÇÜOĞLU, Res. Asst. Mücahid SEÇGIN 311
CHAPTER 11
OTTOMAN LAW
Asst. Prof. Dr. Saliha OKUR GÜMRÜKÇÜOĞLU, Res. Asst. Mücahid SEÇGİN 327
CHAPTER 12
TURKISH PHILOSOPHY OF LAW AND SOCIOLOGY OF LAW
Res. Asst. Ercan ER 363
FOREWORD 5
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS 7
9
PUBLIC LAW
CHAPTER 1
FUNDAMENTAL ELEMENTS OF TURKISH CONSTITUTIONAL LAW
Asst. Prof. Dr. Murat TUMAY, Res. Asst. Feyzan ÖZBAY,
Res. Asst. Sezen KAMA IŞIK, Res. Asst. Mustafa Gökhan ERTİN 25
SECTION I DEFINITION 25
SECTION II HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE TURKISH CONSTITUTIONALIST
MOVEMENT 26
SECTION III THE LEGISLATURE 29
I. Composition of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey 29
A. Eligibility Criteria d to Become a Deputy 31
B. Parliamentary Privileges 31
II. Functions and Powers of the GNAT 33
A. Enacting Laws 33
B. Parliamentary Oversight 34
III. After the 2019 Election 35
SECTION IV THE EXECUTIVE 36
I. Elements of the Executive 36
A. President 37
B. Prime Minister (PM) 38
C. Council of Ministers (CoM) 38
II. Legal Status 40
A. Privileges and Immunities 40
B. Ministerial Liability 40
1. Political Liability 40
2. Criminal Liability 41
3. Legal Liability 41
III. After 2019 Election 41
A. President 42
10 Turkish Public Law
B. Vice Presidents and Ministers 44
C. Presidential Decrees 45
SECTION V THE JUDICIARY 45
IV. Organization of the Judiciary 45
A. Judicial (Civil and Criminal) Courts 46
B. Administrative Courts and Tax Courts 46
C. Military Courts 47
D. Turkish Constitutional Court 48
E. Court of Accounts 49
V. Judicial Independence 49
A. Independence of Judges 50
B. Tenure of Judges 50
C. Principle of Natural Judge 50
BIBLIOGRAPHY 51
CHAPTER 2
HUMAN RIGHTS PROTECTION FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE
1982 CONSTITUTION
Asst. Prof. Dr. Murat TUMAY, Res. Asst. Feyzan ÖZBAY,
Res. Asst. Sezen KAMA IŞIK, Res. Asst. Mustafa Gökhan ERTİN 53
I. General Constitutional Framework 53
II. Limitations to Fundamental Rights 55
III. Suspension of Basic Rights and Freedoms 57
IV. Individual Application to the Constitutional Court 58
BIBLIOGRAPHY 65
CHAPTER 3
TURKISH ADMINISTRATIVE LAW
Dr. Halil ALTINDAĞ, Dr. Ömer Faruk EROL, Res. Asst. Emre KILIÇ 67
I. Turkish Administrative Organization 67
A. Central Administration 68
1. President of the Republic 68
a. Election 68
b. Duties and Powers 69
B. Decentralization 70
1. Territorial Decentralization (Local Administrations) 70
a. Special Provincial Administration (İl Özel İdaresi) 71
aa. General Provincial Council (İl Genel Meclisi) 72
bb. Provincial Executive Committee (İl Encümeni) 72
cc. Governor (Vali) 72
b. Municipality (Belediye) 72
aa. Municipal Council (Belediye Meclisi) 73
bb. Municipal Executive Committee (Belediye Encümeni) 74
cc. The Mayor (Belediye Başkanı) 74
c. Metropolitan Municipality (Büyükşehir Belediyesi) 74
d. Village Administration (Köy İdaresi) 75
2. Decentralization Based on Services 76
a. Institutions of Higher Education (Yüksek Öğretim Kurumları) 76
b. Regulatory and Supervision Agencies (Düzenleyici ve Denetleyici Kurumlar) 76
c. Professional Organizations Having the Characteristics of Public Institution
(Kamu Kurumu Niteliğindeki Meslek Kuruluşları) 77
d. Presidency of Religious Affairs (Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı) 77
II. Activities of Administration 77
A. Public Services 78
B. Administrative Police 79
III. Powers of Administration 80
A. Administrative Acts 80
1. Administrative Regulations 80
2. Individual Administrative Acts 81
B. Administrative Contracts 81
C. Administrative Actions 82
D. Law on Public Procurement 82
1. Basic Legislation on Public Procurement 82
2. Procurement Procedures 83
a. The Law No 2886 84
b. The Law No 4734 84
3. Objection to Procurement 85
a. Complaint Application to the Contracting Authority (Şikayet) 85
b. Appeal Application to the Public Procurement Authority (İtirazen Şikayet) 86
E. Administrative Sanctions 86
1. Definition of Administrative Sanction and Primary Legislation 86
2. Basic Principles Regarding Administrative Sanctions 87
3. Judicial Review of Administrative Sanctions 87
BIBLIOGRAPHY 89
CHAPTER 4
TURKISH ADMINISTRATIVE JURISDICTION
Res. Asst. Dr. Halil ALTINDAĞ, Res. Asst. İ. Esra DÜLGER SUCU,
Res. Asst. Kasım OCAK 91
I. General 91
II. Organization of Administrative Jurisdiction 91
A. Council of State 92
B. Regional Administrative Courts 93
C. Administrative Courts 93
12 Turkish Public Law
D. Tax Courts 93
III. Administrative Litigation 94
A. Action for Annulment 94
B. Action of Full Jurisdiction 95
IV. Suspension of Execution 96
V. Time Limit to File a Case 96
VI. Procedure For Expedited Trial 97
VII. Legal Remedies 99
A. In General 99
B. Ordinary Legal Remedies 99
1. Appeal 99
2. Cassation 102
C. Extraordinary Legal Remedies 105
1. Renewal of the Trial 105
2. Cassation for the Benefit of Law 106
BIBLIOGRAPHY 108
CHAPTER 5
TURKISH CRIMINAL AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE LAW
Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Hakan HAKERİ, Res. Asst. Dr. Derya TEKİN,
Res. Asst. Melik KARTAL, Res. Asst. Kübra TUNÇ 109
I. INTRODUCTION 109
SECTION I GENERAL PART OF THE PENAL CODE 110
A. Principles of Criminal Law and Criminal Justice Policy 110
1. Rule of Law 110
2. Principle of Legality (in crime and punishment) 110
3. Proportionality Rule 111
4. Respect to Human Dignity 111
5. Equal Protection of Law 111
6. Principle of Culpability 111
7. Individuality of Criminal Responsibility 112
B. Application of Turkish Penal Code 112
1. Application of Turkish Penal Code in respect of Time 112
2. Application of Turkish Penal Code in respect of Location 112
a. Active Personality Principle 114
b. Passive Personality Principle 114
c. Protective Principle 115
d. Representation Principle (İkame Yargı) 115
e. Universal Jurisdiction Principle 116
f. Retrial in Turkey 117
g. Extradition of Foreigners 118
3. Application of Criminal Laws regarding Persons 121
a. President of the Republic 122
b. Parliamentary Immunity 122
ba. Absolute immunity (non–accountability) 122
bb. Temporary Immunity (no prosecution without the act of the parliament) 123
c. International jurisdictional immunity 123
d. Some foreign soldiers and civilians and their relatives 124
e. Civil servants/Public officials 124
C. Elements of Crime 125
1. Legal Element of Crime/Typicality (tipiklik) 125
a. Physical (objective) elements – Actus Reus 126
aa. An actomission to act 126
ab. A particular harmresult 127
ac. Causation (causal relation) 128
b. Mental (subjective) elements – Mens Rea 128
ba.Dolus Directus – Criminal Intent 128
bb. Dolus Eventualis – Eventual Intent – Recklessness 128
bc. Advertent (Conscious) and Inadvertent (Unconscious) Negligence 128
bd. The Aggravation of an Offence Due to Its Consequences 130
2. Element of Illegality/Unlawfulness (Lack of a Lawful Reason) 130
a. Executing a Provision (Art. 24/1) 131
b. Executing a Lawful Order (Art. 24/2) 131
c. Self–defense (Art. 25/1) 131
d. Use of a Right (Art. 26/1) 131
e. Consent (Art. 26/2) 131
D. Culpability 132
1. Criminal Capacity (Kusur Yeteneği – İsnat Kabiliyeti) 132
a. Reasons Affecting the Criminal Capacity 132
ab. Age (Art. 31 TPC) 132
ab. Insanity (Art. 32) 133
ac. Deafness and Dumbness (Art. 33) 133
ad. Ephemeral Reasons, Addiction to Alcohol and Drugs (Art. 34) 133
2. Reasons Affecting Culpability 133
a. Unlawful and Binding Order of the Supervisor (Art. 24/2) 133
b. State of Necessity (Art. 25/2) 134
c. Force and Violence, Menace and Threat (Art. 28) 134
d. Expectability in Crimes by Omission 134
e. Unjust provocation (Art. 29) 134
f. Exceeding of Limit in Excusatory Causes 134
g. Mistake Claims 135
h. Other Conditions of the Punishability 135
ha.Objective conditions of punishability (Objektif cezalandırılabilme şartları) 136
hb. Personal Excuses for Impunity and Personal Circumstances Which WithdrawReduce
Penalty (Şahsi cezasızlık sebepleri ve Cezayı kaldıran veya cezada indirim yapılmasını
gerektiren şahsi sebepler) 136
E. Attempt 137
1. Attempt to Commit a Crime 137
2. Voluntary Abandonment 137
3. Effective Remorse 138
F. Participation in Crimes 138
14 Turkish Public Law
G. Joinder of Offences 140
1. Joint Offence 140
2. Successive Offences 140
3. Conceptual Aggregation/Joinder of Ideas 141
H. Sanctions 142
1. Suspension of the sentence of imprisonment 143
2. Dismissal of an action and termination of punishment 144
SECTION II SPECIAL PART OF THE PENAL CODE (CRIMES) 145
A. International Offences 149
1. Genocide (Art. 76) 149
2. Offences against humanity (Art. 77) 149
3. Forming organized groupsengaging in the management of such groups to
commit genocide and/or offences against humanity (Art. 78) 150
4. Unlawful Transfer of Immigrants to a Country (Art. 79) 150
5. Human Trade (Art. 80) 151
B. Offences against Individuals 151
1. Offences against Life 151
a. Voluntary manslaughter – Intentional killing/homicide (Art. 81–83) 152
b. Soliciting suicide (Art. 84) 153
c. Negligent homicide (Art. 85) 153
2. Offences of Bodily Harm 153
a. Intentional injury (Art. 86) 154
b. Abortion 154
3. Offences against Sexual Immunity 155
a. Sexual Assault (Art. 102) 155
b. Sexual Abuse of the Child (Art 103) 156
c. Sexual intercourse with the person who has not attained the lawful age (Art 104) 158
d. Sexual Harassment (Art 105) 158
4. Offences Against Freedom 159
a. Threat (Art. 106) 159
b. Deprivation of Freedom (Art. 109) 159
c. Violation of the Immunity of Residence (Art. 116) 160
5. Offences Against Honor 161
a. Insult (Art. 125) 161
aa. Aggravating Circumstances 161
ab. Identification of the Victim 162
ac. Proof of Imputation 162
ad. Immunity of Accusation and Defence 162
af. Insulting on the Ground of an Unjust ActReciprocal Insult 163
6. Offences Against Privacy and Secrecy of Life 163
7. Offences against Property 165
C. Offences Against the Public 166
1. Offences Against Public Health 166
2. Offences Against Public Confidence 167
a.Forgery of Official Document (Art. 204) 167
b.Forgery of Private Document (Art. 207) 168
c.A Mitigating Circumstance for Both Crimes (Art. 211) 169
d. A Special Joinder Rule Regarding Both Crimes (Art. 212) 169
3. Offences Against Public Peace 169
a. Provocation to Commit an Offence (Art. 214) 169
b. Provoking the Public to Hatred, HostilityDenigration (Art. 216) 169
c. Establishing an Organisation for the Purpose of Committing a Crime (Art. 220) 170
d. Effective Remorse for the Offence of Establishing an Organisation for the Purpose of
Committing a Crime (Art. 221) 172
D. Offences against Nation and State 172
1. Offences Against the Reliability and Functioning of the Public Administration 172
2. Offences Against the Judicial Bodiesthe Court 174
a. Calumny (Art. 267) 174
b. Non–Notification of Crime (Art. 278) 175
c. Destruction, ConcealingAltering Evidence (Art. 281) 175
3. Offences against the Constitutional Order and its Functioning Violation of the
Constitution (Art. 309) 176
SECTION III CRIMINAL PROCEDURE LAW 176
A. Principles of Criminal Procedure Law 176
B. General Characteristics of Criminal Justice System in Turkey 178
C. Precautionary Measures 179
1. Being stopped by the police 180
2. Capture and Custody 180
3. Arrest and Judicial Control 181
4. Search 184
D. Stages/Phases of Criminal Procedure in Turkey 185
1. Investigation 185
a. The duties and powers of the PPS 186
aa. Internal Structure of the PPS 187
ab. The Justice of the Peace 187
b. Ending the investigation 188
c. Return of the Indictment 189
2. Prosecution (Trial) 190
3. Decision to Delay the Pronouncement of the Judgement 193
4. Legal Remedies: Objection (İtiraz), Appeal on Facts and Law (İstinaf) and Appeal on
Law (Temyiz) 195
a. Objection (İtiraz) 195
b. Appeal on Facts and Law (İstinaf) 196
c. Appeal on Law (Temyiz) 197
BIBLIOGRAPHY 199
CHAPTER 6
TURKISH GENERAL TAX LAW
Res. Asst. Emine Sevcan ARTUN, Res. Asst. Ahmet Emrah GEÇER,
Res. Asst. Arzu KALYON 203
SECTION I TURKISH GENERAL LAW AT NATIONAL LEVEL 203
I. Definition and Sources of Tax Law 203
A. Definition of Tax and Tax Law 203
B. Sources of Tax Law 204
1. Binding Sources of Tax Law 204
a. The Constitution 204
b. Tax Codes 205
c. International Tax Treaties 206
d. Statutory Decrees 207
e. Other Binding Sources 207
2. Non–binding Sources of Tax Law 207
C. The Parties to the Taxation 208
D. General Principles of Tax Law 209
II. Taxation Process 210
A. Taxable Event 210
B. Tax Assessment 211
1. Complementary Tax Assessment 211
2. Ex– Officio Tax Assessment 211
3. Statutory Tax Assessment 211
C. Tax Notification 212
D. Tax Accrual 212
E. Tax Collection 213
III. Tax Offences 213
A. General 213
B. Tax Misdemeanors 214
1. Irregularity Misdemeanors 214
2. Tax Loss Misdemeanors 215
C. Tax Crimes 215
1. Tax Evasion 216
2. Breach of Tax Secrecy 216
3. Carrying Out Personal Affairs of Taxpayers 216
IV. Tax Procedure Law 217
A. General 217
B. Administrative Methods For Resolving Tax Disputes 217
1. Conciliation (Uzlaşma) 217
2. Error Correction (Hata Düzeltme) 219
3. Reduction in Tax Loss, Irregularity and Special Irregularity Penalties 219
4. Application to Higher Authorities 220
C. Judicial Tax Dispute Resolution 220
1. Principles of Tax Procedure 220
2. Tax–Related Courts 221
a. Tax Courts 222
b. Regional Administrative Courts 222
c. The Council of State 223
3. Tax Trial Procedure 224
V. Tax Enforcement Law 225
A. General 225
B. Compulsory Execution Proceeding 226
C. Measures of Conservation 226
1. Pre–emptive Right 226
2. Request for a Guarantee 227
3. Precautionary Accrual (İhtiyati Tahakkuk) 227
4. Precautionary Attachment (İhtiyati Haciz) 228
5. Nullity Proceedings 228
SECTION II GENERAL TAX LAW AT INTERNATIONAL LEVEL 229
I. International Tax Law 229
A. General 229
B. States’ Jurisdiction to Tax 230
C. Legal Nature of International Tax Treaties in Turkish Law 230
D. Notion of Double Taxation 231
E. Issue of Double Non–Taxation: Tax Evasion and Tax Avoidance 231
BIBLIOGRAPHY 233
CHAPTER 7
TURKISH TAXATION SYSTEM
Res. Asst. Arzu KALYON, Res. Asst. Ahmet Emrah GEÇER,
Res. Asst. Emine Sevcan ARTUN 235
SECTION I DIRECT TAXES 235
I. Direct Taxation 235
A. Income Tax for Real Persons 235
1. Commercial Income 236
2. Agricultural Income 236
3. Salaries 237
4. Income from Self–employment 237
5. Earnings from Security Capital 237
6. Earnings from Immovable Property 237
7. Any Other Income and Earning 237
B. Corporate Tax 238
1. Thin Capitalization 239
2. Transfer Pricing 239
3. Tax – Free Corporate Restructurings 240
SECTION II INDIRECT TAXES 241
I. Indirect Taxation 241
A. Value Added Tax 241
B. Stamp Tax 242
C. Motor Vehicles Tax 243
D. Banking and Insurance Transaction Tax (BITT) 243
E. Gambling Tax 243
F. Inheritance and Gift Tax 243
G. Property Tax 244
H. Special Communication Tax 244
İ. Customs Tax 244
J. Fees 244
K. Special Consumption Tax 244
BIBLIOGRAPHY 246
CHAPTER 8
PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW
Asst. Prof. Dr. Tülay YILDIRIM MAT, Res. Asst. Miray AZAKLI KÖSE 247
SECTION I USE OF FORCE BY STATES 247
I. Prohibition on the Use of Force 247
II. Right of Self–Defense 249
III. Scope of Self–Defense 250
IV. AnticipatoryPre–Emptive Self–Defense 252
V. Collective Self–Defense 253
VI. Humanitarian Intervention 253
VII. Responsibility to Protect 255
VIII. Use of Force Under Chapter VII of the Charter 255
SECTION II INTERNATIONAL LAW OF STATE RESPONSIBILITY 257
I. Source of Responsibility: The Internationally Wrongful Act of A State 258
A. Attribution of Conduct to A State 259
B. Breach of an International Obligation 260
C. Circumstances Precluding Wrongfulness 260
1. Consent 260
2. Self–Defense 261
3. Countermeasures 261
4. Force–majeure and Distress 261
5. Necessity 262
II. Consequences of an Internationally Wrongful Act 262
A. Restitution 263
B. Compensation 264
C. Satisfaction 264
III. Serious Breaches of Obligations Under Peremptory Norms 264
SECTION III SOURCES OF INTERNATIONAL LAW 265
I. Introduction 265
II. Primary Sources 266
A. Treaties 266
B. Customary International Law 266
C. General Principles of Law 268
III. Secondary Sources 268
A. Judicial Decisions 268
B. Doctrine 269
IV. Other Sources 269
A. Resolutions of International and Regional Organizations 269
B. Soft Law 269
C. International Law Commission 270
D. Peremptory Norms (Jus Cogens) 270
BIBLIOGRAPHY 272
CHAPTER 9
PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW–OTHER ISSUES OF INTERNATIONAL LAW
AND TURKEY’S LEGAL POSITION IN RELATED MATTERS
Asst. Prof. Dr. Tülay YILDIRIM MAT, Res. Asst. Miray AZAKLI KÖSE,
Res. Asst. Merve İSPİRLİ ARMAĞAN 275
SECTION I INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS 275
I. Introduction 275
II. History and Role of International Organizations 276
III. Legal Personality 277
IV. TURKEY’S MEMBERSHIP OF INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS 278
A. United Nations (UN) 278
B. Council of Europe 279
C. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) 280
SECTION II MAIN ACTORS OF INTERNATIONAL LAW: STATES 281
I. STATE 281
A. Land 281
B. Population 282
1. Right of Self–Determination 283
C. Political Authority 283
D. Sovereignty 284
II. PROTECTION OF SOVEREIGNTY 285
A. Main Principle; Non–Intervention 285
1. Exceptions to the Non–Intervention Principle 286
a. State Consent 286
b. Responsibility to Protect 287
III. STATES’ JURISDICTIONAL IMMUNITY 287
IV. STATE BORDERS; TURKEY 288
SECTION III REFUGEE CRISIS; ASYLUM PROCESS IN TURKEY 289
I. Introduction 289
II. Key legal document related to refugees; 1951 Geneva Convention 289
III. Refugee status in Turkish Legal System 290
SECTION IV LAW OF THE SEA 292
I. Introduction 292
II. Major Maritime Zones 292
A. Baselines and Internal Waters 292
B. Territorial Sea 294
C. Contiguous Zone 294
D. Continental Shelf 295
E. Exclusive Economic Zone 295
F. High Seas 297
G. The Deep Seabed Area 298
H. Straits and Archipelagos 299
III. The Law of Turkish Territorial Sea 300
A. General Rules 301
1. Territorial Sovereignty 301
2. Right of Innocent Passage 301
B. The Legal Regime on Turkish Straits 301
1. Background 301
2. The Legal Regime 302
3. The Jurisdiction of the Coastal State Over Foreign Vessels 304
4. The Frozen Conflict Between Turkey and Greece 305
BIBLIOGRAPHY 308
CHAPTER 10
TURKISH LEGAL HISTORY (PRE–ISLAMIC PERIOD)
Asst. Prof. Dr. Saliha OKUR GÜMRÜKÇÜOĞLU, Res. Asst. Mücahid SEÇGIN 311
I. General 311
II. The Asian Hun Empire 312
III. Gokturk State 313
IV. Uyghur State 314
V. Structure and Functioning of the State at the Time of the Turks before Islam 314
A. Hakan 316
B. Kurultay (Congress) 317
C. Viziers and Other State Officials 318
D. Töre (Laws) 319
VI. Criminal Law 319
VII. Judicial Structure and Civil Procedure Law 321
VII. Family Law 321
A. General 321
B. Marriage 322
C. Kalın 322
D. Divorce 323
E. Adoption 323
IX. Law of Succession 324
X. Law of Obligation 324
BIBLIOGRAPHY 325
CHAPTER 11
OTTOMAN LAW
Asst. Prof. Dr. Saliha OKUR GÜMRÜKÇÜOĞLU, Res. Asst. Mücahid SEÇGIN 327
I. Historical Background 327
II. Islamic Law 328
A. The Holy Quran 328
B. Sunnah 329
C. Ijma(Consensus of Opinion) 330
D. Qiyas (Deductive Analogy) 330
III. Historical Periods of Islamic Law 331
A. The Period of the Prophet 331
B. The Period of Rightly Guided Caliphs (First Four Caliphs) and Companions 332
C. The Period of Tabi’in (Successors of the Companions) 333
D. The Period of Schools (Madhab) 334
1. The Hanafi School 335
2. The Maliki School 335
3. The Shafi’i School 336
4. The Hanbali School 336
5. The Period of Taqlid (Imitation) 336
6. Legislation Period 337
IV. Legal Structure of the Ottoman Empire 337
A. General 337
B. Relation of Sharia and Sultanic Law 338
C. Judicial Structure 339
1. General 339
2. Courts 340
a. Courts of Sharia 340
b. Community Courts (For Non–Muslims) 341
c. Consular Courts 342
d. Other Courts 343
D. Legislation of the Ottoman Law 344
1. General 344
2. Fiqh Books 344
3. Fatwa Books 345
4. Legal Codes (Kanunnâmeler) 346
5. Records of Sharia Courts 346
V. Legal Structure of the Ottoman Empire After the Era of Tanzimat 347
A. General 347
1. Role of Western Countries 347
2. Commercial, Economical and Social Changes and Legal Reasons 348
3. Necessity for Reforms 348
B. Edict of Tanzimat 348
C. Edict of Islahat 349
D. Reforms in Public Law 350
1. Constitutional Law 350
2. Administrative Law 351
3. Criminal Law 352
4. Procedural Laws 353
E. Reforms in Private Law 353
1. Mecelle–i Ahkâm–i Adliyye (Civil Code of the Ottoman Empire) 353
2. Ottoman Family Law Decree 355
3. Land Law 356
F. Reforms in Judicial Structure 356
BIBLIOGRAPHY 359
CHAPTER 12
TURKISH PHILOSOPHY OF LAW AND SOCIOLOGY OF LAW
Res. Asst. Ercan ER 363
SECTION I NATURE AND IMPORTANCE OF PHILOSOPHY OF LAW 363
I. Nature of Philosophy of Law 363
II. Importance of Philosophy of Law 364
A. Theoretical Importance of Philosophy of Law 364
B. Practical Importance of Philosophy of Law 365
SECTION II MAIN IDEOLOGIES WHICH DETERMINE THE DEVELOPMENT
PROCESS OF PHILOSOPHY OF LAW 365
I. Theories Embodied by Moral Content of Law 366
II. Theories Embodied by Normativity of Law 366
III. Theories Embodied by Social Facts Determining Law 367
BIBLIOGRAPHY 368

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6,98   
34,90   
6
5,82   
34,90   
7
5,33   
37,34   
8
4,71   
37,69   
9
4,23   
38,04   
Bonus Card ( Garanti - TEB - Denizbank - Şekerbank vb. )
Taksit Sayısı
Taksit tutarı
Genel Toplam
1
34,90   
34,90   
2
17,45   
34,90   
3
11,63   
34,90   
4
8,73   
34,90   
5
7,33   
36,65   
6
6,17   
36,99   
7
5,33   
37,34   
8
4,71   
37,69   
9
4,23   
38,04   
Maximum Card ( İş Bankası - Ziraat Bankası )
Taksit Sayısı
Taksit tutarı
Genel Toplam
1
34,90   
34,90   
2
17,45   
34,90   
3
11,63   
34,90   
4
8,73   
34,90   
5
6,98   
34,90   
6
5,82   
34,90   
7
5,33   
37,34   
8
4,71   
37,69   
9
4,23   
38,04   
Worldcard ( YKB - TEB - Vakıfbank - Anadolubank - Albaraka )
Taksit Sayısı
Taksit tutarı
Genel Toplam
1
34,90   
34,90   
2
17,45   
34,90   
3
11,63   
34,90   
4
8,73   
34,90   
5
7,33   
36,65   
6
6,17   
36,99   
7
5,33   
37,34   
8
4,71   
37,69   
9
4,23   
38,04   
Kapat